Tuesday, July 29, 2008

Science Supports the Anti-Anxiety Effects of Essential Oils

By Nancy Stevens

The most pervasive concept of aromatherapy in North America is that of nice smells making you feel good - a strong whiff out of a little bottle and you're carried away to your personal 'happy place'. Not a bad idea, but this concept carries the burden of 'New Age' stereotypes with it. Aromatherapy is but a simple folk remedy that works only because the yoga-posing, mantra-chanting, tantric-sex practicing user thinks it does. Well, we've got news for the 'Establishment': Science has validated aromatherapy! Perhaps most profoundly, science has shown that smelling essential oils has true anti-anxiety effects; there's actual data showing essential oils will actually help you relax. Now all you natural health and wellness practitioners can tell your doubting, possibly smirking friends - this stuff is for real.

The number of studies investigating the therapeutic actions of essential oils has exploded over the last ten years, as popular interest grows in the areas of natural health and wellness. The efficacy of may 'folk' remedies is being validated, with many of them having benefits at least as potent as their pharmaceutical counterparts, and most having very limited, if any, side effects. This is especially true with the use of essential oils for reducing stress and lessening anxiety. And what's wonderful about the oils is that their readily available and easy to use. A mother with active children can just plug in a diffuser and let it do its thing. A stressed-out commuter can do the same. Feeling a little wound up, but want to keep the aroma a little more personal? Apply a few drops of diluted oil to yourself or loved one wherever you like. What oils have these anti-anxiety effects? Let's have a look...

Lavender has been the most frequently studied of all the essential oils. Its anti-anxiety (or simply 'relaxing') action has been documented both in the laboratory (using stressed-out mice and rats) and in clinical environments with actual human beings. Many, many studies have reported the same thing: inhalation of lavender oil brings calm under a great variety of conditions. At least one study compared Lavender oil aroma to that of Juniper, Cypress, Geranium, Jasmine and Frankincense. It was only the Frankincense that had a somewhat similar effect, but not nearly as effective as Lavender. Several studies compared Lavender's effect to diazepam (Valium) with Lavender's aroma having similar (but likely more healthy) calming results. In other studies, Lavender has been shown to improve sleep, decrease conflict between animals, and reduce the amount of pain medication needed by recovering hospital patients.

Sandalwood oil is another well-known stress reducer. For those that may not enjoy the floral aroma of Lavender, Sandalwood could be the oil of choice. Its warm, earthy scent is grounding and centering, being used by some spiritual traditions to enhance relaxed, focused meditative states. The science shows similar results - Sandalwood oil topically applied relaxed the body while stimulating psyche. Studies on sleep/wake cycles using Sandalwood oil topically improved the quality of sleep and lessened waking episodes. A small study using Sandalwood suggested the oil may be helpful in reducing anxiety for palliative care patients. Beyond the scope of Western scientific inquiry, Sandalwood oils and pastes have been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of psychological disorders, utilizing its sublime mental-health promoting actions.

While Sandalwood and Lavender have the most data to back them up, many other essential oils have had positive test results. Rose is a standout; it has also been tested alongside Valium (apparently the anti-anxiety gold standard) with better and longer-lasting results. The rose aroma's effect seem to increase over time, where as benzodiazepines' effect will tend to decrease - and the test subjects appeared less confused or sedated. Rose, like Lavender, reduced conflict between test subjects as well. For a little variety, you can mix Rose and Sandalwood together (try a 1:4 ratio)...this is a classic Indian aromatic blend combining two of the world's best known anti-anxiety scents.

Other oils found in research databases include Angelica, Chamomile, Lemon, Lemongrass, Tagetes and Ylang Ylang. Some oils tested didn't show repeatable results in the laboratory environment, but if you find and oil aroma that you find relaxing, it's more than likely not purely 'in your head'; the olfactory (smell) sense is the one of the five senses most directly wired to the brain's emotional centers. These are, in turn, directly wired to the autonomic nervous system controlling functions such as heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure - all of which are closely tied to one's level of stress.

So what to do with these stress relieving wonders? They're really easy to use - one of the great features of aromatherapy. Both topical application and inhalation show repeatable results in laboratory tests. A common method of topical application is to dilute the essential oil in a carrier oil like Jojoba down to 10% or less. Essential oils tend to pass easily into the bloodstream when applied to the skin, so nearly any technique will do. A few drops of your mixture can be placed on the wrists and rubbed together (this is nice, as you'll smell the aroma as well). For inhalation, there's a great many aromatherapy diffusers available, from little, inexpensive plug in units, to professional models which make a cloud of pure, intense aroma. For anxiety relief, any model where you can smell the aroma will do the job - the higher end diffusers tend to bathe a larger area in your aroma of choice.

In aromatherapy, a little scent and sense goes a long way. You only really need enough oil to get a hint of the aroma for a psychologically active effect - so experiment with small amounts of several oils. There seems to be a great difference in aromatic preference between individuals; some like florals, while other's find them too fluffy. These folks might find earthier aromas more to their liking. And different aromas will likely have subtly different effects - some can be both relaxing and stimulating (Citrus oils are a good example) where others can be just plain relaxing (the floral aromas generally have this effect). Whatever your choice, know that aromatherapy is now not just some New Age fad...the men in white coats have given the thumbs-up to natural health and wellness by just simply stopping and smelling the roses.

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